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Myelin
Gordon Research Conference

Myelin – Rethinking Functions, Revealing Mechanisms, Developing Medicines

Dates

May 15-20, 2016

Location

Renaissance Tuscany Il Ciocco
Lucca (Barga), Italy

Organizers

Chairs:
Charles ffrench-Constant & Robin Franklin

Vice Chairs:
Patrizia Casaccia & David H. Rowitch

Meeting Description

Despite comprising nearly 50% of the human CNS and PNS, myelinated axons represent a neglected area of research when compared with the level of activity examining neurons. The conventional view is that myelin simply accelerates conduction velocity along the axon. However, recent advances have shown that myelin provides critical metabolic support to the axon and also contributes to the plasticity that underpins learning. New genetic and imaging technologies have revealed how the spectacular cell-cell interaction that creates the multi-lammellar is formed and identified novel mechanisms that control myelination and lead to its pathology in common diseases such as multiple sclerosis, perinatal white matter injury and peripheral neuropathies. In turn, these advances have led to the development of screening platforms that have provided a new generation of drug targets for myelin regeneration – so providing potential therapies for diseases that cost the US alone tens of billions of dollars annually.

Together, these advances have led to a renaissance in myelin research and the state of the art of the field will be presented and discussed at the 2016 Myelin Gordon Research Conference entitled "Myelin – rethinking functions, revealing mechanisms, developing medicines". This meeting of 200 attendees will take place between May 16-20 2016 in the spectacular setting and climate of the Tuscany region of Italy. The speaker list will comprise the newly-established PIs who, together with senior scientists in the field acting as discussion leaders, have driven these advances. Some additional shorter talks will be selected soon before the meeting to capture further cutting-edge developments. The meeting will be preceded on May 14-15 by a Gordon Research seminar (GRS) entitled "Unravelling myelin: new insights into generation and regeneration" aimed specifically at the graduate students and post-docs for whom these meetings will provide a unique opportunity for training, establishing collaborations and becoming, in turn, the next generation of scientific leaders in this exciting and important field.

Related Meeting

This GRC was held in conjunction with the "Myelin" Gordon Research Seminar (GRS). Refer to the associated GRS program page for more information.

Contributors

Final Meeting Program

Sunday
4:00 pm - 8:00 pmArrival and Check-in
6:00 pmDinner
7:30 pm - 7:40 pmWelcome / Introductory Comments by GRC Site Staff
7:40 pm - 9:30 pmKeynote Session: Imaging Axons and the Mechanics of Myelin - Physical Forces and Oligodendrocyte Biology
How can biomolecular sensors and in vivo imaging strategies advance our understanding of development and regeneration in the CNS? What is the balance between chemical and physical cues in determining the behaviours of myelinating cells and their precursors?
Discussion Leaders: Babette Fuss (Virginia Commonwealth University, USA) and James Salzer (New York University School of Medicine, USA)
7:40 pm - 7:45 pmOpening Remarks
7:45 pm - 8:20 pmThomas Misgeld (Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, Germany)
"Using Biomolecular Sensors to Image the Life and Death of Axons in the Living CNS"
8:20 pm - 8:30 pmDiscussion
8:30 pm - 8:50 pmKevin Chalut (Cambridge Stem Cell Institute, Cambridge University, United Kingdom)
"Mechanical Signaling in Stem Cells and Ageing"
8:50 pm - 9:00 pmDiscussion
9:00 pm - 9:20 pmAnna Jagielska (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA)
"Role of Mechanical Cues in Oligodendrocyte Biology"
9:20 pm - 9:30 pmDiscussion
Monday
7:30 am - 8:30 amBreakfast
9:00 am - 12:30 pmMaking Myelin and Myelinating Cells
Why do some myelinating glia make myelin while others do not? What intrinsic and extrinsic signals trigger the elaboration of the sheath and the associated synthesis of myelin membrane, and how are they linked to the genetic, epigenetic and ncRNA-based regulatory mechanisms that drive differentiation?
Discussion Leaders: Akiko Nishiyama (University of Connecticut, USA) and Ueli Suter (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
9:00 am - 9:20 amIntroduction by Discussion Leader
9:20 am - 9:35 amCarla Taveggia (Fondazione Centro San Raffaele, Italy)
"Novel Players on the Stage of Myelination"
9:35 am - 9:45 amDiscussion
9:45 am - 10:00 amTara De Silva (University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA)
"Glutamatergic Signaling During Myelination"
10:00 am - 10:10 amDiscussion
10:10 am - 10:20 amGoncalo Castelo-Branco (Karolinska Institutet, Sweden)
"Single Cell RNA-Seq Reveals Distinct Cell States Within the Oligodendrocyte Lineage"
10:20 am - 10:30 amDiscussion
10:30 am - 11:00 amCoffee Break
11:00 am - 11:15 amMarius Wernig (Stanford University, USA)
"Induction of Neural Cells by Direct Epigenetic Reprogramming"
11:15 am - 11:25 amDiscussion
11:25 am - 11:40 amAshwin Woodhoo (CIC BioGUNE, Spain)
"Myelinophagy: A Novel Mechanism for Schwann Cell Mediated Myelin Breakdown"
11:40 am - 11:50 amDiscussion
11:50 am - 12:00 pmStephen Fancy (University of California, San Francisco, USA)
"Oligodendrocyte Precursors Migrate Along Vasculature in the Developing Nervous System"
12:00 pm - 12:10 pmDiscussion
12:10 pm - 12:30 pmGeneral Discussion
12:30 pmLunch
1:30 pm - 4:30 pmFree Time
3:00 pm - 4:00 pmPower Hour
The GRC Power Hour is an optional informal gathering open to all meeting participants. It is designed to help address the challenges women face in science and support the professional growth of women in our communities by providing an open forum for discussion and mentoring.
Organizers: Kelly Monk (Washington University School of Medicine, USA) and Jacqueline Trotter (Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany)
4:30 pm - 6:00 pmPoster Session
6:00 pm - 8:00 pmMaintaining Myelin - Building the Internode and Sustaining the Axon
Once formed, how stable is the myelin sheath? Can it be removed and/or become longer and/or thicker, and if so how? Are the variables of internode, node and axon initial segment - all of which are predicted by computational modelling to alter the balance between conduction velocity and energy consumption - used as a physiological variable to maximise the energy efficiency of conduction? What are the predicted effects on conduction of changes in sheath?
Discussion Leaders: Peter Brophy (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom) and Kaylene Young (Menzies Institute for Medical Research, Australia)
6:00 pm - 6:20 pmIntroduction by Discussion Leader
6:20 pm - 6:35 pmOri Peles (Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel)
"Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination Is Controlled by a Cascade of Inhibitory GPCRs"
6:35 pm - 6:45 pmDiscussion
6:45 pm - 7:00 pmSharyl Fyffe-Maricich (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA)
"ERK MAPK Signaling Regulates Myelin Sheath Expansion in the Adult CNS"
7:00 pm - 7:10 pmDiscussion
7:10 pm - 7:25 pmBen Emery (Junger Center for Neurosciences Research, Oregon Health and Science University, USA)
"Transcriptional Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Formation and Maintenance"
7:25 pm - 7:35 pmDiscussion
7:35 pm - 7:50 pmBruce Appel (University of Colorado School of Medicine, USA)
"Mechanisms of Myelin Sheath Growth and Stability During Axon Selection"
7:50 pm - 8:00 pmDiscussion
8:00 pmDinner
Tuesday
7:30 am - 8:30 amBreakfast
8:30 amGroup Photo
9:00 am - 12:30 pmMyelin and the Axon
How do axons and myelinating cells communicate with each other?
Discussion Leaders: David Attwell (University College London, United Kingdom) and Julia Edgar (University of Glasgow, United Kingdom)
9:00 am - 9:20 amIntroduction by Discussion Leader
9:20 am - 9:35 amDouglas Fields (National Institutes of Health, USA)
"Neurotransmitter Regulation of Myelination"
9:35 am - 9:45 amDiscussion
9:45 am - 10:00 amJonah Chan (University of California, San Francisco, USA)
"Somatodendritic Inhibition of Oligodendrocyte Myelination"
10:00 am - 10:10 amDiscussion
10:10 am - 10:20 amMeng-meng Fu (Stanford University, USA)
"Proteomic Investigations of MBP mRNA Transport in Oligodendrocyte Development"
10:20 am - 10:30 amDiscussion
10:30 am - 11:00 amCoffee Break
11:00 am - 11:15 amEva-Maria Kramer-Albers (Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany)
"Exosomes in Neuron-Glia Interaction: 'Goodies' for Neuronal Fitness?"
11:15 am - 11:25 amDiscussion
11:25 am - 11:40 amPeter Stys (University of Calgary, Canada)
"The Axo-Myelinic Synapse: Implications for Physiology and Disease"
11:40 am - 11:50 amDiscussion
11:50 am - 12:00 pmYannick Poitelon (Hunter James Kelly Research Institute, University at Buffalo, USA)
"YAP and TAZ Control Peripheral Myelination and the Expression of Laminin Receptors in Schwann Cells"
12:00 pm - 12:10 pmDiscussion
12:10 pm - 12:30 pmGeneral Discussion
12:30 pmLunch
1:30 pm - 4:30 pmFree Time
4:30 pm - 6:00 pmPoster Session
6:00 pm - 8:00 pmMyelin and the Mind - Adaptive Myelination and Neural Plasticity
How does the plasticity of CNS myelin contribute to the ability of the brain to learn? What effect would changes in sheath number, length and thickness observed in experimental studies have on conduction velocity, and will these lead to changes in circuit function, particularly in cortex where axons are only partially myelinated? Will blocking plasticity impair complex higher CNS functions? Does loss of plasticity contribute to age-related cognitive decline?
Discussion Leaders: Ragnhildur Karadottir (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom) and William Richardson (University College London, United Kingdom)
6:00 pm - 6:20 pmIntroduction by Discussion Leader
6:20 pm - 6:35 pmChristopher Mount (Stanford University, USA)
"Myelin Plasticity in Health and Disease"
6:35 pm - 6:45 pmDiscussion
6:45 pm - 7:00 pmBenedikt Grothe (LMU Munich, Germany)
"Adaptation of Myelination Pattern in a Neural Circuit with Sub-Millisecond Precision"
7:00 pm - 7:10 pmDiscussion
7:10 pm - 7:25 pmGabriel Corfas (University of Michigan, USA)
"Myelin and Deafness; Can You Hear Me Now?"
7:25 pm - 7:35 pmDiscussion
7:35 pm - 7:50 pmAdan Aguirre (State University of New York at Stony Brook, USA)
"Role of NG2+ Glia in Brain Homeostasis"
7:50 pm - 8:00 pmDiscussion
8:00 pmDinner
Wednesday
7:30 am - 8:30 amBreakfast
9:00 am - 12:30 pmMyelin Pathology
What are the contributions of myelin abnormalities to neurological disease? While the focus has traditionally been on mechanisms of destruction in MS and on peripheral neuropathies, we will additionally address the leukodystrophies and radiation induced myelin damage.
Discussion Leaders: Marianna Bugiani (VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands) and Klaus-Armin Nave (Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, Germany)
9:00 am - 9:20 amIntroduction by Discussion Leader
9:20 am - 9:35 amKenneth Smith (University College London, United Kingdom)
"MS Viewed from a Tissue Energy Perspective"
9:35 am - 9:45 amDiscussion
9:45 am - 10:00 amTanja Kuhlmann (University of Münster, Germany)
"How to Wrap the Myelin: Remyelination in Demyelinating Diseases"
10:00 am - 10:10 amDiscussion
10:10 am - 10:20 amJames Salzer (New York University School of Medicine, USA)
"Mobilizing Stem Cells for Myelin Repair"
10:20 am - 10:30 amDiscussion
10:30 am - 11:00 amCoffee Break
11:00 am - 11:15 amHugh Willison (University of Glasgow, United Kingdom)
"Guillain-Barré Syndrome"
11:15 am - 11:25 amDiscussion
11:25 am - 11:40 amMarjo van der Knaap (VU University Medical Center, The Netherlands)
"Update on Leukodystrophies"
11:40 am - 11:50 amDiscussion
11:50 am - 12:00 pmPatrizia Casaccia (Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, USA)
"Microbiota Regulation of Adult Myelination"
12:00 pm - 12:10 pmDiscussion
12:10 pm - 12:30 pmGeneral Discussion
12:30 pmLunch
1:30 pm - 4:30 pmFree Time
4:30 pm - 6:00 pmPoster Session
6:00 pm - 8:00 pmMending Myelin
The regeneration of myelin is well-documented, but much less is known about the effect on the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. What is the consequence of thin, short internodes that characterise regenerated myelin? What is the contribution of regeneration failure to diseases such as MS? Why does myelin regeneration become less efficient with age?
Discussion Leaders: Vittorio Gallo (Children's National Medical Center, USA) and Paul Tesar (Case Western Reserve University, USA)
6:00 pm - 6:20 pmIntroduction by Discussion Leader
6:20 pm - 6:35 pmPatrick Kuery (Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany)
"Inhibited Oligodendroglial Differentiation: Regulators and Protein/Protein Interactions"
6:35 pm - 6:45 pmDiscussion
6:45 pm - 7:00 pmVeronique Miron (University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom)
"Regenerative Roles of Macrophages in Myelin Regeneration"
7:00 pm - 7:10 pmDiscussion
7:10 pm - 7:25 pmMark Kotter (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom)
"Enhancing CNS Remyelination by Promoting OPC Differentiation"
7:25 pm - 7:35 pmDiscussion
7:35 pm - 7:50 pmAlison Lloyd (MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, United Kingdom)
"The Cell Complexity of Peripheral Nerve Regeneration"
7:50 pm - 8:00 pmDiscussion
8:00 pmDinner
Thursday
7:30 am - 8:30 amBreakfast
8:30 am - 9:00 amBusiness Meeting
Nominations for the Next Vice Chair; Fill in Conference Evaluation Forms; Discuss Future Site and Scheduling Preferences; Election of the Next Vice Chair
9:00 am - 12:30 pmMonitoring Myelin
To move new technologies for imaging the myelination and remyelination (multiphoton confocal microscopy, magnetic resonance imaging and PET scanning) from proof of principle to application the meeting will explore development, plasticity and disease. Do mammalian myelin forming glia exhibit the short period during which myelin sheaths can be formed and subsequent activity dependent pruning as in zebrafish? What are the molecular and cellular changes in the glia that cause altered signalling in MR scanning following periods of activity or during remyelination. Can PET ligands be used to identify and quantify new myelin in clinical trials of regenerative therapies in MS?
Discussion Leaders: Dwight Bergles (Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, USA) and Leda Dimou (Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Germany)
9:00 am - 9:20 amIntroduction by Discussion Leader
9:20 am - 9:35 amBruno Stankoff (ICM Brain and Spine Institute, France)
"Molecular Imaging of Myelin Repair: Translation to the Clinic"
9:35 am - 9:45 amDiscussion
9:45 am - 10:00 amHeidi Johansen-Berg (FMRIB, University of Oxford, United Kingdom)
"Monitoring White Matter Plasticity with Neuroimaging"
10:00 am - 10:10 amDiscussion
10:10 am - 10:20 amWilliam Richardson (University College London, United Kingdom)
"Motor Learning Triggers Rapid Differentiation of Oligodendrocyte Precursors"
10:20 am - 10:30 amDiscussion
10:30 am - 11:00 amCoffee Break
11:00 am - 11:15 amDaniel Reich (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, USA)
"Monitoring Myelin Repair by MRI"
11:15 am - 11:25 amDiscussion
11:25 am - 11:40 amJaime Grutzendler (Yale School of Medicine, USA)
"Label-Free Imaging of Myelinated Axons with SCoRe Microscopy"
11:40 am - 11:50 amDiscussion
11:50 am - 12:00 pmMarc Ford (University College London, United Kingdom)
"Tuning Conduction Speed by Adjustment of Node and Internode Properties"
12:00 pm - 12:10 pmDiscussion
12:10 pm - 12:30 pmGeneral Discussion
12:30 pmLunch
1:30 pm - 4:30 pmFree Time
4:30 pm - 6:00 pmPoster Session
6:00 pm - 8:00 pmMyelin Medicines
High-content screens of oligodendrocyte differentiation and shape have identified a number of potential drugs for promoting remyelination in the CNS. To what extent do the screens measure the key required output as highlighted by experimental studies and by the neuropathological examination of MS tissue - the formation of a new myelin sheath? Can similar high content screens to be applied to CNS diseases other than MS, such as adrenoleucodystrophy? How can we move from rodent- to human-based screens, given the prolonged timescale of human oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination in vivo and in vitro?
Discussion Leaders: Catherine Lubetzki (Universite Pierre-et-Marie-Curie / INSERM, France) and V. Wee Yong (University of Calgary, Canada)
6:00 pm - 6:20 pmIntroduction by Discussion Leader
6:20 pm - 6:35 pmLuke Lairson (Scripps Research Institute, USA)
"Chemical Biology of Remyelination"
6:35 pm - 6:45 pmDiscussion
6:45 pm - 7:00 pmAurora Pujol (Institut d'Investigació Biomédica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), Spain)
"A CB2 Agonist Halts Axonal Degeneration in a Mouse Model of Adrenoleukodystrophy"
7:00 pm - 7:10 pmDiscussion
7:10 pm - 7:25 pmAri Green (University of California, San Francisco, USA)
"Confirming Potential Remyelinating Compounds Identified from Screens: Translational Approaches Using Electrophysiology and Imaging"
7:25 pm - 7:35 pmDiscussion
7:35 pm - 7:50 pmBjoern Neumann (University of Cambridge, United Kingdom)
"Physiological Interventions to Overcome the Age-Related Decline in CNS Remyelination"
7:50 pm - 8:00 pmDiscussion
8:00 pmDinner
Friday
7:30 am - 8:30 amBreakfast
9:00 amDeparture

Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R13NS096944. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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